Types of Gynecological Diseases
Menopause is the point in a woman's life when she has not had a menstrual period for 1 year. Menopause marks the end of the childbearing years. It is sometimes called "the change of life." For most women, menopause happens around age 50, but every woman's body has its own timeline. Some women stop having periods in their mid-40s. Others continue well into their 50s.
Perimenopause is the process of change that leads up to menopause. It can start as early as your late 30s or as late as your early 50s. How long perimenopause lasts varies, but it usually lasts from 2 to 8 years. You may have irregular periods or other symptoms during this time.
Menopause is a natural part of growing older. You don't need treatment for it unless your symptoms bother you. But it's a good idea to learn all you can about menopause. Knowing what to expect can help you stay as healthy as possible during this new phase of your life.
Abnormal Menstrual Periods Most women have bg the first few years after menstruation starts. It may take several years for the hormones that control menstruation to reach a balance.
Menstrual periods also may be very irregular at the other end of the menstrual years. Many women realize that they are approaching perimenopause and menopause when their otherwise regular periods become irregular. Menopause occurs when it has been 12 months since you have had a menstrual period.
Menstrual Cramps- Most women have painful menstrual cramps from time to time. Menstrual cramps are one of the most common reasons for women to seek medical attention. The pain from menstrual cramps can range from mild to severe and can involve the lower abdomen, back, or thighs. It may also produce headaches, nausea, dizziness or fainting, or diarrhea or constipation.
During the menstrual cycle, the lining of the uterus produces a hormone called prostaglandin. This hormone causes the uterus to contract, often painfully. Women with severe cramps may produce higher-than-normal amounts of prostaglandin, or they may be more sensitive to its effects.
Cramping is common during the teen years, when a woman first starts having periods. Primary dysmenorrhea is a term used to describe painful menstrual cramping with no recognized physical cause. It is seen most commonly in women between the ages of 20 and 24. It usually goes away after 1 to 2 years, when hormonal balance occurs.
Ovarian Cysts An ovarian cysts is a sac that forms on the surface of a woman's ovary during ovulation. It holds a maturing egg. Usually the sac goes away after the egg is released. If an egg is not released, or if the sac closes up after the egg is released, the sac can swell up with fluid.
Functional Ovarian Cysts are different than ovarian growths caused by other problems, such as cancer. Most of these cysts are harmless. They do not cause symptoms, and they go away without treatment. But if a cyst becomes large, it can twist, rupture, or bleed and can be very painful.
Premature Ovarian Failure occurs when your ovaries-which store and release eggs-stop working before age 40. You may have no or few eggs, or your eggs do not develop properly. Depending on the cause, premature ovarian failure may develop as early as the teen years. Premature ovarian failure is characterized by irregular or no periods, infertility problems, and menopause-like symptoms. It is difficult, though not impossible, for women with premature ovarian failure to become pregnant.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease is an infection of a woman's reproductive organs. This occurs when women fail to contribute in the normal conception process, and also becomes incapable of carrying a pregnancy to full term. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease can cause scar tissue in the pelvic organs and lead to infertility. There are different types of infertility; complete infertility, subfertility, primary infertility, and secondary infertility.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease may not cause any symptoms in the beginning stages or may cause only mild symptoms, such as bleeding or discharge from the vagina. Some women don't even know they have it. They only find out when they can't get pregnant or they have pelvic pain.As the infection spreads, the most common symptom is pain in the lower belly. The pain has been described as crampy or as a dull and constant ache. It may be worse during sex, bowel movements, or when you urinate. Some women also have a fever.
Ovarian Syndrome also known by other names affects women and is a complex of symptoms that are not necessarily all present in all cases. Some, but not all, affected women have multiple cysts on the ovaries. Other characteristics include the absence of menstruation or irregular menstruation, failure of the ovary to release eggs, elevated levels of the male hormones known as androgens, excessive amounts of body hair, a high rate of miscarriage, and infertility. Three criteria often used for a diagnosis are menstrual irregularity, hyperandrogenism, and exclusion of other disease. There is some evidence that it is an inherited condition.
Uterine Fibroids are lumps that grow on your uterus. You can have fibroids on the inside on the outside or in the wall of your uterus. Your doctor may call them fibroid tumors, leiomyomas, or myomas. But fibroids are not cancer. You do not need to do anything about them unless they are causing problems. Fibroids are very common in women in their 30s and 40s. By the time they are 50, about 80 women out of 100 have fibroids. But fibroids usually do not cause problems. Many women never even know they have them.
Often fibroids do not cause symptoms. Or the symptoms may be mild, like periods that are a little heavier than normal. If the fibroids bleed or press on your organs, the symptoms may make it hard for you to enjoy life. Fibroids make some women have long gushing periods and cramping, fullness or pressure in their belly, low back pain, pain during sex, or an urge to urinate often.
Heavy bleeding during your periods can lead to anemia. Anemia can make you feel weak and tired. Sometimes fibroids can make it harder to get pregnant. Or they may cause problems during pregnancy, such as going into early labor or losing the baby (miscarriage).
Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding or spotting between periods is experienced sometime in most women's lives. Vaginal bleeding is considered to be abnormal if it occurs; when you are not expecting your menstrual period, when your menstrual flow is lighter or heavier than what is normal for you, at a time in life when it is not expected, such as before age 10, when you are pregnant, or after menopause.
Heavy bleeding during the first few weeks after delivery (postpartum) or after an abortion may occur because the uterus has not contracted to the prepregnancy size or because fetal tissue remains in the uterus (retained products of conception).
If you are age 40 or older, abnormal vaginal bleeding may mean that you are entering perimenopause. In a woman who has not had a menstrual period for 12 months, vaginal bleeding is always abnormal and should be discussed with your doctor.
Cervical Cancer occurs when abnormal cells on the cervix grow out of control. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. Cervical cancer can often be cured when it's found early. It is usually found at a very early stage through a Pap test.
Most cervical cancer is caused by a virus called human papillomavirus, or HPV. You get HPV by having sex with someone who has it. There are many types of the HPV virus. Not all types of HPV cause cervical cancer. Some of them cause genital warts, but other types may not cause any symptoms.
You can have HPV for years and not know it. It stays in your body and can lead to cervical cancer years after you were infected. This is why it is important for you to have regular Pap tests. A Pap test can find changes in cervical cells before they turn into cancer. If you treat these cell changes, you may prevent cervical cancer.
Abnormal cervical cell changes rarely cause symptoms. But you may have symptoms if those cell changes grow into cervical cancer. Symptoms of cervical cancer may include; bleeding from the vagina that is not normal, or a change in your menstrual cycle that you can't explain, bleeding when something comes in contact with your cervix, such as during sex or when you put in a diaphragm, pain during sex, or vaginal discharge tinged with blood.
Uterine Cancer is the growth of abnormal cells in the lining of the uterus. The lining is called the endometrium. Uterine cancer is also called Endometrial cancer. Endometrial cancer usually occurs in women older than 50. The good news is that it is usually cured when it is found early. And most of the time, the cancer is found in its earliest stage, before it has spread outside the uterus.
The most common symptom of uterine cancer is unexpected bleeding from the vagina after menopause. (During hormone therapy, some vaginal bleeding is expected.) About 20 out of 100 women who have unexpected bleeding after menopause have uterine cancer. Women with advanced uterine cancer may have other symptoms, such as losing weight without trying.
Ovarian Cancer happens when cells that are not normal grow in one or both of your ovaries. This cancer is often cured when it is caught early. But most of the time, the cancer has already spread by the time it is found.
Ovarian cancer does not usually cause symptoms at first. But most women do have some symptoms in the 6 to 12 months before ovarian cancer is found. The most common symptoms are gas and pain or swelling in the belly. Other symptoms are diarrhea or constipation, or an upset stomach. But these symptoms are so general that they are more likely to be blamed on a number of other causes. Most of the time, the cancer has already spread by the time it is found.
Breast Cancer occurs when abnormal cells grow out of control in one or both breasts. They can invade nearby tissues and form a mass, called a malignant tumor. The cancer cells can spread to the lymph nodes and other parts of the body. Breast cancer is many women's worst fear. But experts have made great progress in treating cancer. If it is found early, breast cancer can often be cured, and it is not always necessary to remove the breast.
Breast cancer symptoms may cause a change in the way the breast feels. The most common symptom is a painless lump or thickening in the breast or underarm. It may also change the way the breast looks, such as, the breast skin dimpling or looking like an orange peel. There also may be a change in the size or shape of the breast. The nipple may turn inward or skin around it may look scaly. The breast may secrete a clear or bloody fluid.
Gynecological Disease Risk Factors
The risk factors of gynecological diseases vary from one ailment to another. When it is about cancer, then there is life risk with the disease. When it is infertility, the woman is unable to conceive without proper treatment.
In case of menstrual disorders of all three types of diseases, there are high risks of various other diseases in future. Amenorrhea may later cause cancer at uterus, while dysmenohorrea itself can be a symptom of tumor and resulting cancer. Menorrhagia may cause anemia that can again call up several other threatening diseases.
Urinal incontinence may cause deep social embarrassment, resulting into psychological problems. Scabies can turn up into sexually transmitted disease and highly infectious. Prolapse can damage body function and resultant severe diseases.
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