Types and Causes of Thyroid Problems

Types and Causes of Thyroid Problems

Iannuccilli, J. 2004. Risk for malignancy of thyroid nodules as assessed by sonographic criteria. The need for biopsy. URL (abstract):
http://www.jultrasoundmed.org/cgi/content/abstract/23/11/1455 (accessed 04.24.2010).

Ebert, E. 2010. The thyroid and the gut. J. Clin. Gastroenterol. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20351569 (accessed 04.24.2010).

Alvarez-Marfany, M., et al. 1994. Long-term prospective study of postpartum thyroid dysfunction in women with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 79, 10–16.

Paola, L. et al. 2009. Development of Hashimoto's thyroiditis after subacute thyroiditis: An unusual patient. Thyroid, 19 (1), 73-74. URL (abstract) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19072672 (accessed 04.25.2010).

DeRuiter, J. 2002. Thyroid hormone tutorial: Thyroid pathology, 16. URL (PDF): http://www.auburn.edu/~deruija/endp_thyroidpathol.pdf (accessed 04.23.2010).

Patrick, L. 2008. Iodine deficiency and therapeutic considerations. Alt. Med. Rev., 13 (2), 116–127. URL (PDF): http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/13/2/116.pdf (accessed 04.23.2010).

Hollowell, J., et al. 1998. Iodine nutrition in the United States. Trends and public health implications: Iodine excretion data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys I and III (1971–1974 and 1988–1994). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 83 (10), 3401–3408. URL: http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/83/10/3401 (accessed 04.23.2010).

Hollowell, J., & Haddow, J. 2007. The prevalence of iodine deficiency in women of reproductive age in the United States. Public Health Nutr., 10 (12A), 1532–1539; discussion 1540–1541. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18053275 (accessed 04.24.2010).

Caldwell, K., et al. 2005. Urinary iodine concentration: United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2002. Thyroid, 15 (7), 692–699. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16053386 (accessed 04.24.2010).

Blount, B., et al. 2006. Urinary perchlorate and thyroid hormone levels in adolescent and adult men and women living in the United States. Environ. Health Perspect., 114 (12), 1865–1871. URL: http://www.ehponline.org/members/2006/9466/9466.html (accessed 04.24.2010).

Pevelka, S. 2004. Metabolism of bromide and its interference with the metabolism of iodine. Physiol. Res., 53 (Suppl. 1), S81–S90. URL (PDF): http://www.biomed.cas.cz/physiolres/pdf/53%20Suppl%201/53_S81.pdf (accessed 04.24.2010).

Vobecký,M., & Babický, A. 2004. Effect of enhanced bromide intake on the concentration ratio I/BR in the rat thyroid gland. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 43–45, 509–516. URL: (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7710868 (accessed 04.24.2010).

Begin Your Journey to Wellness with Patients Medical

A well-functioning thyroid is essential to your overall health. If you feel that your thyroid is not functioning properly, there are measures you can take to minimize the health risks and damage that thyroid dysregulation may pose. We have extensive experience in treating thyroid hormone imbalance, thyroid diseases, and other endocrine disorders. With a range of tests offering greater specificity and sensitivity than conventional testing, the expert physicians at Patients Medical can provide timely and accurate diagnosis. In partnership with you, we design and coordinate an individualized integrative protocol, combining the best of conventional and alternative evaluation and treatment solutions to help you achieve maximum health.

Request an Appointment